Resolution is the process of addressing problems identified through monitoring and/or evaluation. The term reflects the concept that NGOs have responsibility to respond when finding water systems that are non-functional or need major repair.
References used to develop the “Guidelines for Resolution of Problems with Water Systems” are provided below in the interest of encouraging further learning.
Adams Alida, 2012. Financial Sustainability of Rural Water Supplies in Western Kenya: Comparing technology types and management models: Master’s Thesis. SNV.
AEMA Development Consultants, 2013. External End of Project Evaluation of the Food Security Project Supported by the Japanese Government and Implemented by IFRC & ZRCS. Zimbabwe Red Cross / IFRC.
Aliprantis Dionissi, 2012. CommunityBased Well Maintenance in Rural Haiti. Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland.
AVINA, 2011. Diálogos por el Agua: Sistematización de 4 foros de escucha con las juntas de saneamiento del Paraguay.
Banks Brian, 2013. Outcomes of 2013 Sustainable WASH Forum [Conference] // Stockholm World Water Week website. SIWI.
Barnes Rebecca [et al.], 2014. Implementing sustainable water and sanitation projects in rural, developing countries [Journal] // Waterlines. January. 1:Vol. 33. pp. 7188.
Barrie J., Byars P. and Antizar Ladislao B., 2013. Assessing the functionality of rural hand pump wells in Sierra Leone using Water Point Mapping [Conference] // 14th UK Young Water Professionals Conference.
Baumann Erich, 2006. Do operation and maintenance pay? [Journal] // Waterlines. 1:Vol. 25. pp.10-12.
Baumann Erich and Danert Kristen, 2008. Operation and Maintenance of Rural Water Supplies in Malawi: Study Findings
Beyene Habtamu, 2012. Factors Affecting the Sustainability of Rural Water Supply Systems: the Case of Mecha Woreda, Amhara Region, Ethiopia. A project paper Presented to the Faculty of the Graduate School Cornell University.
Bliss Katherine E. and Fisher Matt, 2013. Water and Sanitation in the Time of Cholera: Sustaining Progress on Water, Sanitation, and Health in Haiti. CSIS.
Burr Peter [et al.], 2012. The recurrent expenditure gap: Failing to meet and sustain basic water services. WASHCost.
Burt Murray and Keiru Bilha Joy, 2011. Strengthening postconflict peacebuilding through community waterresource management: case studies from Democratic Republic of Congo, Afghanistan and Liberia [Journal] // Water International. Vol. 36:2. pp. 232-241.
Calaw Roger, Ludi Eva and Tucker Josephine, 2013. Achieving Water Security: Lessons from Research in Water Supply, Sanitation and Hygiene in Ethiopia [Book]. Practical Action.
Carter R.C., Tyrrel S.F. and Howsam P., 1999. The Impact and Sustainability of Community Water Supply and Sanitation Programmes in Developing Countries [Journal] // J.CIWEM. – August. Vol. 13. pp. 292-296.
Casey Katherine, Glennerster Rachel and Miguel Edward, 2011. The GoBifo Project Evaluation Report: Assessing the Impacts of Community-Driven Development in Sierra Leone. 3ie.
charity:water, 2009. 58,345 Hours For Clean Water [Online]. Accessed: February 28, 2014.
Cotton Andrew, 2011. WaterAid in Mozambique: Country Programme Evaluation. WaterAid.
Cotton Andrew, Adams Jerry and Shaw David, 2012. Improving water supply and sanitation programme effectiveness: lessons from WaterAid’s outcome evaluation studies [Journal] // Water and Environment Journal. Vol. 27. pp. 19.
Coville Aidan and Orozco Victor, 2014. Moving with efficacy to effectiveness; using behavioural economics to improve the impact of WASH interventions [Journal] // Waterlines.Vol. 33. pp. 26-34.
Cranfield University, AguaConsult and IRC, 2006. Landscaping and Review of Approaches and Technologies for Water, Sanitation and Hygiene. Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.
Cuppens Arnoud, Smets Ilse and Wyseure Guido, 2012. Identifying sustainable rehabilitation strategies for urban wastewater systems: A retrospective and interdisciplinary approach. Case study of Coronel Oviedo, Paraguay [Journal] // Journal of Environmental Management. Vol. 114. pp. 423-432.
Davis Susan, Pocosangre Adan and Hicks Paul, 2014. Six Factors for Improving Rural Water Services in Central America. Global Water Initiative.
Deneke Israel and Abebe Habtamu, 2008. The Sustainability of Water Supply Schemes: A case study in Mirab Abaya woreda. Research inspired Policy and Practice Learning in Ethiopia and the Nile region (RiPPLE).
DRI, Improve International, MWA, WASH Advocates, 2014. Resolution Workshop Report: Exploring What Happens after Monitoring and Evaluation. Washington DC: WASH Advocates.
Engineers without Borders-Canada. 2009. Learning from our mistakes: A collection from Overseas Volunteer Staff
Engineers without Borders-Canada, 2011. Failure Report. Toronto: pp. 20-21.
Engineers without Borders-Canada, 2010. Failure Report: Learning from our Mistakes. Toronto.
Engineers without Borders-Canada, 2010. Learning from our mistakes: 2nd Issue National Conference. Toronto.
Ethiopia Ministry of Water Resources, 2007. Water Sector Development Program (WSDP) Reports. Addis Ababa.
Ethiopia Ministry of Water Resources, 2002. Water Sector Development Program: Main Report Volume II.
European Court of Auditors, 2012. European Union Development Assistance for Drinking Water Supply and Basic Sanitation in SubSaharan Countries.
Evans, Phil and Appleton, Brian, 1993. Community Management Today: The Role of Communities in the Management of Improved Water Supply Systems. IRC.
FCG International, 2013. Nepal Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Sector Study: Modalities of Service Delivery, their Features and Options to Efficiently Increase Access and Sustainability/Presented to the Study Review Committee and the World Bank.
Ferguson A. E. and Mulwafu W. O., 2001. Decentralization, Participation and Access to Water Resources in Malawi. Madison, Wisconsin: BASIS Management Entity.
Fisher Julie, 2005. Operation and Maintenance for Rural Water Service: Sustainable Solutions. WELL Resource Center.
Foster Tim, 2013. Predictors of Sustainability for CommunityManaged Handpumps in SubSaharan Africa: Evidence from Liberia, Sierra Leone, and Uganda [Journal] // Environmental Science & Technology. Vol. 47. p. 12037−12046.
Foster Tim, 2012. Private Sector Provision of Rural Water Services: A Desk Study for Water For People. Water For People.
Fuentealba R., 2011. Sostenibilidad en sistemas de agua potable rural en Chile [Article] // Semana Sectorial del Agua del Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo. Santiago de Chile:InterAmerican Development Bank.
Furey Sean, 2013. RWSN Handpump Survey 2013: Summary of Findings.
Gibson J. and Matengu K., 2010. Challenges of Maintaining Rural Water Supply Scheme Kavango and Caprivi Regions (Republic of Namibia) [Conference] // International Symposium on Rural Water Services, Providing Sustainable Water Services at Scale. Kampala, Uganda 1315 April 2010. RWSN.
Gibson Jim, 2010. Operation and maintenance costs of rural water supply schemes in South Africa [Conference]. The Hague, Netherlands:IRC International Water and Sanitation Centre.
Golooba-Mutebi Frederick, 2012. In Search of the Right Formula: Public, Private and CommunityDriven Provision of Safe Water in Rwanda and Uganda [Journal] // Public administration and development. Vol. 32. pp. 440443.
Government of the Republic of Liberia, 2014. Water, Sanitation & Hygiene (WASH) Sector Performance Report 2013.
Guest Greg, Bunce Arwen and Johnson Laura, 2006. How Many Interviews Are Enough? An Experiment with Data Saturation and Variability [Journal]. Sage Publications. Vol. 18. pp. 5982.
HanyaniMlambo, B.T.; Mukorera, Odreck, 2013.External End of Project Evaluation of the Food Security Project Supported by the Japanese Government and Implemented by IFRC & ZRCS.
Harvey P. A., Ikumi P. N. and Mutethia D. K., 2003. Sustainable Handpump Projects in Africa: Report on Fieldwork in Kenya. WEDC.
Harvey P.A., 2005. Operation and Maintenance for Rural Water Services: Sustainable solutions. Background report for WELL Briefing Note 15. WELL Resource Centre.
Harvey Peter A. and Reed Robert A., 2007. Community-managed water supplies in Africa: sustainable or dispensable? [Journal] // Community Development Journal. July 3. 3:Vol. 42. pp. 365–378.
Hazelton Derek G, 2000. Development of Effective Community Water Supply Systems using deep and shallow wells:WRC Report No. TT132/00. South Africa: Water Research Centre.
Hope Rob, Foster Tim and Thomson Patrick, 2012. Reducing Risks to Rural Water Security in Africa [Journal] // AMBIO. Vol. 3. pp. 773776.
Jansz Shamila, 2011. A study into rural water supply sustainability in Niassa province, Mozambique. WaterAid.
Jones Stephen [et al.], 2013 Learning from failure: lessons for the sanitation sector. UK Sanitation Community of Practice (SanCoP).
Jones Stephen, 2013. Sharing the recurrent costs of rural water services in four municipalities supported by WaterAid in Mali [Journal] // Waterlines. October. 4:Vol. 32. pp. 295-307.
Kang Michael and Campbell Megan, 2013. Seeking Systemic Change in Malawi’s WASH Sector. IRC Triple S.
Kayser G. [et al.], 2010. Assessing the Impact of Post-Construction Support—The Circuit Rider Model—on System Performance and Sustainability in CommunityManaged Water Supply: Evidence from El Salvador [Conference] // Proceedings of an international symposium. Kampala / ed. al Smits et. The Hague:Thematic Group on Scaling Up Rural Water Services. pp. 33-35.
Kayser Georgia L [et al.], 2014 Circuit Rider Post-Construction Support: Improvements in Domestic Water Quality and System Sustainability in El Salvador [Journal] // Journal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development. March.
Koestler Lucrezia [et al.], 2010. Improving sustainability using incentives for operation and maintenance: The concept of waterpersonyears [Journal] // Waterlines. Practical Action Publishing, 2010. 2:Vol. 29.
Kumar Prakash, 2013. Typical WASH cases from South Asia [Conference] // Learning from WASH System Failures: Resilient Risk Reduction. World Water Week Stockholm.
Lewis, Sarah Elizabeth, 2011. Failure Report 2011. Engineers without Borders-Canada
Lockwood Harold and Le Gouais Anna, 2011. Professionalising community-based management for rural water services. The Hague:IRC Water and Sanitation Centre.
Lockwood Harold, 2013. Fixing the Sector, Not Just the Pump. Water Services That Last.
Lockwood Harold, 2013. Sustainability Index of WASH Interventions: Global Findings and Lessons Learned. USAID & Rotary International.
Lockwood Harold, Bakalian Alex and Wakeman Wendy, 2003. Assessing Sustainability in Rural Water Supply: the Role of Follow-up Support to Communities.
López M.A, 2011. Honduras: Abastecimiento de agua en zonas rurales; Experiencias en la prestación de servicios. The Hague: IRC International Water and Sanitation Centre.
Luff Richard, 2013. Subsidies for WASH in development, mitigation, relief, and recovery: a critical but neglected aspect of practice [Journal] // Waterlines. October. 4:Vol. 32. pp. 286-294.
Luyendijk Rolf and Fonseca Catarina, 2013. Crossfire: ‘We need to fund first those who don’t have access rather than fund maintenance for those who already have access’ [Journal] // Waterlines. October. 4:Vol. 32. pp. 265-272.
Malawi Ministry of Agriculture, Irrigation and Water Development, 2012. Malawi Sector Performance Report 2011.
Maoulidi Moumié, 2010. A Water and Sanitation Needs Assessment for Kisumu City, Kenya. MCI Social Sector Working Paper Series N° 12/2010.
Marks Sara and Davis Jennifer, 2012. Does User Participation Lead to Sense of Ownership for Rural Water Systems? Evidence from Kenya [Journal] // World Development. 8: Vol. 40. pp. 1569–1576.
MEME – Ministère de l’Energie, des Mines et de l’Eau and DNH – Direction Nationale de l’Hydraulique, 2009. Strategie de Maintenance des Infrastructures D’Eau Potable, Rapport D’Orientation. Mali.
Morgan Peter, 2013. Learning from WASH System Failures Are We Prepared to Learn? Some personal experiences [Conference] // World Water Week: Learning from WASH System Failures: Resilient Risk Reduction. Stockholm: SIWI.
Mugumya Firminus, 2013. Enabling Community-Based Water Management Systems: Governance and Sustainability of Rural Pointwater Facilities in Uganda:Thesis Submitted for the Award of the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy / School of Law and Government; Dublin City University.
Nassef Magda and Belayhun Mulugeta, 2012. Water Development in Ethiopia’s Pastoral Areas: A Synthesis of Existing Knowledge and Expertise. USAID.
Nekesa Jacinta and Kulanyi Rashidah, 2012. District hand pump mechanics associations in Uganda for improved operation and maintenance of rural watersupply systems [Journal] // Waterlines. Practical Action. 3: Vol. 31.
Nepal Functionality Thematic Working Group, 2010. Position Paper: Functionality of Water Supply Services.
Parker Alison, 2013. How can technologies contribute to failure?. Cranfield University.
Pinera Jean François and Reed Robert, 2011. Restoring services, rebuilding peace: urban water in post-conflict Kabul and Monrovia [Journal] // International Water. March 31. Vol. 36:2. pp. 222-231.
Rojas Franz and Chatterley Christie, 2012. Organizational Evaluation of COCEPRADIL.
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Smits Stef and Baby Kurian, 2013. Islands of Success: Towards water, sanitation and hygiene services for everyone, forever in Patharpratima and Sagar blocks, West Bengal India. IRC.
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Smits Stef, Uytewaal Erma and Sturzenegger Germán, 2013. Institutionalizing monitoring of rural water services in Latin America: lessons from El Salvador, Honduras, and Paraguay. InterAmerican Development Bank.
SNV Cambodia, 2014. Why don’t wells function? Using evidence for smart development [Online] // SNV World. April 11.
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Uganda Ministry of Water and Environment, 2012. Sectoral Specific Schedules/ Guidelines 2012/13 Final.
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Water & Sanitation Rotarian Action Group (WASRAG), 2012. Guidelines to Planning Sustainable Water Projects and Selecting Appropriate Technologies.
Water For People Bolivia, 2012. Everyone Forever: Villa Rivero Bolivia.
WaterAid Mozambique, 2004. Revisiting Broken Projects Programme, Niassa Province End of Programme Report.
WaterAid, 2011. Sustainability Framework.
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WSUP, 2014. Reducing vandalism of water and sanitation infrastructure: Experience from Zambia’s Copperbelt. Joint publication Nkana Water and Sewerage Company (NWSC).
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